NYSCF in the News
Wednesday, 07 June 2017 15:04

Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep brain stimulation via implanted electrodes has proven an effective therapy for Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and depression among other disorders; however, it remains an invasive and risky operation. NYSCF - Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Dr. Ed Boyden and his team at MIT Media Lab have developed a revolutionary new method of noninvasive deep brain stimulation. 
Published in Cell, the scientists, in collaboration with researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the IT’IS Foundation created a way to send electrical signals deep within the brain via electrodes placed on the scalp, as opposed to implanting them deep within the brain at the area of interest. The scientists accomplished this feat via a phenomenon called temporal interference, where two electrodes create a treatment area only where their radiating electrical currents intersect. 
This breakthrough has broad implications for patients and scientists, enabling easier and safer delivery of deep brain stimulation for treatment and opening up new avenues of research that were previously prohibitively expensive and risky. 


Read the press release from MIT News >>

Read the paper in Cell >>

How primates, including humans, easily and effortlessly process social interactions such as playing, fighting and grooming has historically been shrouded in mystery. NYSCF – Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Dr. Winrich Freiwald published his latest work in Science describing an exclusive brain region for social cognition. By studying the brain functions of monkeys as they watched videos using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Dr. Freiwald and his colleague at The Rockefeller University discovered that there is a dedicated network of neurons for social interaction processing in the primate brain. These findings may translate to aspects of human cognition and brain functioning. 


Read the press release on EurekAlert >>

Read the paper in Science >>

NYSCF CEO Susan L. Solomon discussed "Harnessing patient data using stem cells to power precision medicine" during her co-located keynote plenary talk at the Cord Blood World Europe, World Advanced Therapies & Regenerative Medicine Congress 2017, and the World Precision Medicine Congress 2017 conferences in London, UK. Following the plenary discussion, Ms. Solomon joined a panel to explore "The Future of Medicine: A Conversation" with Dr. Ian Campbell, Director for Health and Life Sciences, Innovate UK; Dr. Joanne Kurtzberg, Director, Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, Duke University; and Dr. Patrick Keohane, Chief Medical Officer, BenevolentAI.
The annual New York BIO conference in Manhattan also featured Ms. Solomon on a panel exploring the success of "Research Foundations with Innovative Business Models in New York" alongside Annette Bakker of the Children's Tumor Foundation, Michael Batten of the T1D Fund and JDRF, Sohini Chowdhury of The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, Lara Sullivan of Pfizer, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation.

To successfully exist, many animals keep track of their angular heading, or directionality, over time as they navigate their environments; however, the brain architecture enabling this capability has never been mapped in any species until now. Using a fly animal model, NYSCF – Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Alumnus Dr. Gaby Maimon and a team at The Rockefeller University successfully mapped two classes of shifting neurons, clockwise- and anticlockwise-shifting, each with two subtypes, whose wiring and physiology provide a means to rotate an angular heading estimate based on the fly’s angular velocity.

Importantly, the features of this biological circuit are similar to proposed computation models of head-direction cells in rodents. Therefore, this research may shed light on neural systems integration in a wide variety of species.


Read the paper in Nature >>

Creating consistent groups of mature neurons from stem cells remains challenging in the lab. NYSCF – Robertson Stem Cell Investigator and NYSCF – Robertson Stem Cell Prize recipient Dr. Marius Wernig and his team from Stanford University developed a method to consistently derive GABAergic neurons directly from human stem cells with high levels of maturity. The scientists used lineage-specific transcription factor programming to achieve these remarkable results. 

Published in Nature Methods, this work represents an important step towards enabling the study of diseases affecting these neurons and their signaling ability.


Read the paper in Nature Methods >>

NYSCF – Robertson Stem Cell Investigator Dr. Paola Arlotta and a team of researchers at Harvard University developed protocols to create human brain organoids, organ models cultured from induced pluripotent stem cells, capable of growing and maturing to an unprecedented level. Typical organoids are developed and tested in a matter of weeks. The organoids, reported in Nature, were cultured and matured for nine months or longer.
The scientists analyzed gene expression in more than 80,000 cells taken from 31 brain organoids and compared the results to those documented from human brain tissue samples to identify the multitude of different brain cell types displayed in the organoids. These organoids also developed key traits such as spontaneously active neural networks, dendritic spines and light-sensitive cells. 
These human brain models enable a next-level platform for neuropsychiatric disease modeling and drug discovery.
NYSCF – Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Dr. Ed Boyden of MIT Media Lab was also an author on the paper.


Read more in the Harvard Gazette >>

Read the paper in Nature >>

NYSCF – Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Dr. Ed Boyden and his team at MIT Media Lab published their latest work advancing and improving their revolutionary imaging technique: expansion microscopy. The research, published in Nature Methods, describes an advance on standard expansion microscopy, increasing magnification by 20x the sample size. 

The expansion microscopy technique revolutionized imaging by physically expanding biological specimens while maintaining their characteristics and proportions. Standard expansion microscopy begins by embedding and homogenizing a specimen in a dense polymer gel. The specimen is then physically expanded by 4.5x its starting size by swelling the gel. This technique enables scientists to study the biological structures of minute specimens with unheard of clarity, using standard microscopes and magnification. 

The new process, dubbed iterative expansion microscopy, puts the sample through an additional expansion enabling nanometer resolution imaging of cells and tissues on conventional microscopes. 


Read the paper in Nature Methods >>

Read the press release in MIT News >>

NYSCF – Robertson Neuroscience Investigator Dr. Lisa Giocomo and a team at Stanford University published their recent work in Neuron investigating how navigation works in the brain. Grid cells, commonly known as the GPS of the brain, along with border, head direction, and speed cells comprise the four main types of cells in the navigation system in mammalian brains. The scientists found that the navigation system and the cells that comprise it are much more complex and multifaceted than previously assumed. Instead of distinct cell types, they found that many cells displayed characteristics of multiple cell types and even the flexibility to display traits of one type followed by the traits of another. 

This work upends the assumption that our navigational brain function can be mapped with a mathematical model. Much more research is needed to fully understand the navigation process, including a fundamental reassessment of the mechanisms in play. 


Read the paper in Neuron >>

Read the press release from Stanford News >>

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